Correctly Referenced Essay Examples

All documents cited in your assignment must be listed in a single alphabetical list at the end of the assignment.

The list is arranged by the author's surname, or title if no author is given.

Only the author's initials are included regardless of the presentation of the author's name in the source document. The given name may be cited in full if it is needed to correctly identify the author, for example, where different authors have the same surname and initials.

Include the names of all authors unless the authors number eight or more, in this case include the first six authors' names, then insert three ellipses and follow with the final author's name.

Authors' names are given in the order in which they appear on the source document - do not rearrange the names of the authors of a multi-authored work into alphabetical order.

Capitalisation practice also should be consistent.

Titles and subtitles of journal articles, book parts and book titles are given minimal capitalisation. Only the first letter of the first word of the title (and subtitle, if given) and those words that normally have an initial capital (proper nouns) are capitalised.

Journal titles are given maximal capitalisation. All words other than prepositions, conjunctions, and definite and indefinite articles (a, an, the) are capitalised.

Journal and book titles are italicised when typed or underlined when handwritten.

A hanging indent for each reference makes the alphabetical sequence more obvious.

A review article is an attempt by one or more scientists to sum up and analyze the current state of the research on a particular topic. Since a review article sums up results published in primary research articles it is a secondary source. Ideally, the author(s) searches for everything relevant to the topic, and then sorts it all out into a coherent view of the “state of the art” as it now stands. Review articles give you information on the background and context of a subject as well as the main people working in a field, recent major advances and discoveries, significant gaps in the research, current debates and ideas of where research might go next.

Review articles are virtual gold mines if you want to find out what the key articles are for a given topic. If you read and thoroughly digest a good review article, you should be able to “talk the talk” about a given topic. Unlike research articles, review articles are good places to get a basic idea about a topic.

There are different types of review articles:

Traditional or narrative literature review - “Critiques and summarizes a body of literature and draws conclusions about the topic in question”.

Cronin, P., Ryan, F. & Coughlan, M. 2008. Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach. Br. J. Nurs. 17: 38-43.

 

Systematic review - “uses a more rigorous and well-defined approach to reviewing the literature in a specific subject area”.

Cronin, P., Ryan, F. & Coughlan, M. 2008. Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach. Br. J. Nurs. 17: 38-43.

 

Meta-analysis - "Meta-analysis is a statistical technique for combining the results of different studies to see if the overall effect is significant". McDonald, J.H. 2014. Handbook of Biological Statistics (3 ed.). Sparky House Publishing, Baltimore.

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